Impact the choice of Exchange Rate Regime on country Economic Growth: Which anchor currency leading the 21st Century
Keywords:Foreign Exchange Arrangements,, Macroeconomic Stability,, Exchange Restrictions
This study provides a comprehensive currencies history of the exchange rate arrangement of 195 countries; exchange rate regime impacts on countries' growth and macroeconomic stability period of 1961 to 2020. New measurements of foreign exchange regimes and under controlling the income level of high, upper-middle, middle, and lower-middle economies; This Study adopt Generalized Method of Movements (GMM) to investigate the impact of exchange rate regimes on the economies and macro-economic stability through Per Capita GDP, GDP growth, Inflation and Foreign Trade. The U.S. Dollar dominated the currency in world with a high margin. World countries desire to stabilize exchange rates, reduce exchange restrictions and currencies influence. We find that post Bretton woods transition from fixed to flexible management: Strong relations exist among the choice of exchange rate regime and countries growth. Policy implications are clear; the choice of exchange rate arrangement prevails no impact showing on the long-term countries growth, exchange rate anchor currencies of US Dollar, British Sterling Pound, Euro, Chinese Yuan, French franc, Deutschmark, and Basket currencies have a highly significant impact on countries growth of different income level. Suggest Chinese Yuan may consider alternate anchor currency for World and new measure of exchange rate controls developed. Central banks may be secure advanced country bonds, safe assets, and multi-currencies pegged systems adopted for the reserve to overcome the declining effectiveness of exchange controls.