Characterization of physico-chemical properties and heavy metal concentrations of surface water receiving effluent from champion breweries plc in uyo, akwa ibom state, nigeria
Keywords:Champion Breweries;, surface water, effluent, pollution
Physico-chemical properties and heavy metal concentrations of surface water receiving effluent from Champion Breweries Plc, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State were analysed to evaluate the effect of the effluent on the physico-chemical properties and heavy metal concentrations of the surface water. The water samples were collected using polyethylene bottles that were initially rinsed with 10% hydrochloric acid (HCl) then with the sample water. Two samples were collected at each sampling point. One was for physicochemical properties determinations while the other sample was for heavy metal analysis. HNO3 was added in the samples for heavy metal analysis for preservation of the metals. The collected samples were stored in an ice-packed cooler kit and taken to the laboratory for analysis. The results showed that the temperature of the water was within the permissible limit. Mean pH was lower than the permissible range for drinking water especially during the dry season. Turbidity was above the permissible limit in both dry/wet seasons. Dissolved oxygen was below the permissible limit. Mean biochemical oxygen demand was above the permissible limit. The result of the ratio of chemical oxygen demand to biochemical oxygen demand showed that the compounds in the water were relatively biodegradable. Total suspended solid was above the permissible limit. Mean total dissolved solid was below the permissible limit. Mean electrical conductivity was also below the permissible limit. The concentration of NH4 was at toxic level. The concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and sulphate were below the permissible limits indicating non-toxicity and lack of these nutrient elements in the water. The contents of Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co and Mn were above permissible levels. The effluent from Champion breweries is considered to be one of the major sources of pollutants of surface water in this area, which efficient treatment of effluent before disposal is recommended.